International shipping|Basic knowledge of shipping-tanker
Oil Tanker is a common name for oil tanker, which refers to a liquid cargo ship that carries bulk oil or refined oil.
Classification of tankers (by size):
General-purpose type (tankers below 10,000 tons); handy type (generally called 10,000 to 50,000 ton oil tankers, divided into large handy and handy types. Handy type oil tankers have a carrying capacity of 40,000 to 50,000 tons. Handy type oil tankers are characterized by Strong flexibility, shallow draft, short ship length, large number of cabins, and great demand); Panamax (ship type is subject to the navigable conditions of the Panama Canal as the upper limit, such as the canal's restrictions on ship width and draft, with a deadweight of 60,000 to 80,000 tons Between); Afraid (the highest average freight index AFRA, the best economy, and the best ship type suitable for navigating oil tankers in the Bering Sea ice area, with a deadweight between 80,000 and 120,000 tons); Suez type (the ship type is The navigable conditions of the Suez Canal are the upper limit, with a deadweight between 120,000 and 200,000 tons); VLCC (giant crude oil tankers with a deadweight between 200,000 and 300,000 tons), ULCC (ultra-giant crude oil tankers with a deadweight of 300,000 tons) And above).
Characteristics of tankers:
1. Old-fashioned oil tankers have a single deck and single bottom structure. In order to prevent oil tankers from polluting the ocean due to marine accidents, new medium-sized and above oil tankers adopt double bottom and double hull structures;
2. There are no lifting equipment and large hatches on the deck, only a few small round hatches, and oil pumps, pipelines and various control valves are used to complete the oil loading and unloading operations;
3. Oil tankers generally adopt longitudinal frame structure to ensure longitudinal strength and reduce hull weight;
4. In order to reduce the influence of the free liquid surface on the stability and improve the longitudinal strength of the ship, longitudinal watertight bulkheads are provided to divide the oil tanks into two or three rows of oil tanks in parallel (for oil tankers with L>90m, it is required Install two longitudinally continuous watertight bulkheads in the cargo oil tank area);
5. The L/B of the oil tanker is small, the B/d and the square coefficient Cb are large, and it is a fat ship, and the freeboard is also small;
6. In order to connect the cargo oil tanks as a whole, increase the volume of the cargo tanks and increase fire and explosion protection, the engine room and boiler room are arranged at the stern of the ship, which is a stern type ship;
7. In order to prevent oil leakage and fire and explosion prevention, isolation voids are set at the front and rear ends of the cargo oil tanks, and pump rooms, ballast tanks, etc. are also used as isolation voids;
8. Set up multiple transverse bulkheads and large frame frames to increase the transverse strength and fit different types of oil;
9. Equipped with dedicated ballast tanks or clean ballast tanks, and equipped with slop tanks;
10. Oil tankers are equipped with tank washing equipment. MARPOL Convention and my country's regulations stipulate that new crude oil tankers with a deadweight of more than 20,000 tons should be equipped with a crude oil tank washing system;
11. There are cargo oil pump rooms, and some oil tankers have dry cargo tanks;
12. Set up a pedestrian bridge or passage;
13. Oil tankers should have strict fire prevention measures. Newly built oil tankers with a deadweight of more than 20,000 tons should be equipped with inert gas fire and explosion protection systems;
14. Oil tankers have a large load capacity and are low-speed ships with a single engine and a single oar.
Main routes of tankers (crude oil):
Middle East to Far East, Northwestern Europe, United States, Indian Subcontinent, South Africa, Brazil, etc; , United States, Far East; North Sea to United States, Far East; Baltic Sea to United Kingdom/Continent Europe, Mediterranean, United States, Far East; East Coast of Mexico to United States, Europe, South America; Caribbean to United States, Europe, South America, Indian Subcontinent, Far East; South America to United States , Europe, Far East; Indonesia/Malaysia to Far East, Australia and New Zealand.